Assessment of Falling Behind? Growth, Bust, and the International Race for Scientific Expertise

Falling Behind?
Growth, Bust, and the International Race for Scientific Expertise
by Michael S. Teitelbaum
Princeton College Press
March 30, 2014


Falling Behind? is a latest (March 2014) e-book by Michael Teitelbaum of the Sloan Basis, a demographer and very long time critic of STEM (Science, Know-how, Engineering and Arithmetic) scarcity claims. Falling Behind? is a wonderful e-book with a wealth of information and data on the historical past of booms and busts in science and engineering employment since World Conflict II, STEM scarcity claims generally, and lobbying for “high-skilled” immigration “reform”. Though I’ve been a pupil of those points for a few years, I encountered many information and insights that I didn’t know or had not considered. Nonetheless the e-book has quite a lot of weakenesses which readers ought to take into account.

The “core findings” of the e-book are summarized forthrightly on web page three of the Kindle version:

The proof assembled on this e-book leads inescapably to 3 core findings:

o First, that the alarms about widespread shortages or shortfalls within the variety of U.S. scientists and engineers are fairly inconsistent with practically all obtainable proof;

o Second, that related claims of the previous had been politically profitable however resulted in a collection of booms and busts that did hurt to the U.S. science and engineering enterprise and made careers in these fields more and more unattractive; and

o Third, that the clear indicators of malaise within the U.S. science and engineering workforce are structural in origin and can’t be cured just by offering extra funding. On the contrary, latest efforts of this sort have proved to be destabilizing, and advocates must be cautious what they need for.

Teitelbaum, Michael S. (2014-03-30). Falling Behind?: Growth, Bust, and the International Race for Scientific Expertise (p. 3). Princeton College Press. Kindle Version.

A Lengthy Historical past of Alarms, Booms, and Busts

Teitelbaum identifies and provides an in depth historical past of a collection of alarms, booms and busts in science and engineering coaching and employment relationship again at the least to the tip of World Conflict II. World Conflict II was adopted by a pointy improve in coaching of physicists for the nascent Chilly Conflict, the event of nuclear and thermonuclear (fusion) bombs, and associated actions. Teitelbaum exhibits that this instant post-war growth was beginning to falter in 1956 and 1957, however the dramatic shock launch of Sputnik (October 4, 1957) adopted by the launch of Sputnik 2 (November 3, 1957), a satellite tv for pc giant sufficient to ship a nuclear and even thermonuclear weapon anyplace on the planet, triggered large investments in physics and different STEM fields, together with the multi-billion greenback Apollo program and the much less public growth of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs).

Drawing partly on MIT historian and physicist David Kaiser’s analysis, he discusses the following bust in physics and STEM employment within the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. He then covers the cycle of alarm, growth in physics and another STEM fields through the 1980’s adopted by the 1992-1993 bust because the Chilly Conflict ended, tasks such because the Tremendous Conducting Supercollider (SSC) had been cancelled, and quite a few freshly minted Ph.D.’s found (as soon as once more) a paucity of precise jobs for physicists and plenty of different Chilly Conflict fueled STEM professions.

Teitelbaum strikes on to debate two submit Chilly Conflict alarm/growth/bust cycles: The now well-known or notorious “Web/Telecom Bubble” of the late 1990’s and early 00’s and the molecular biology/biotech bubble of 1998-2005 fueled by the fast doubling of the funds of the Nationwide Insitutes of Well being (NIH) in these years. All in all, he identifies 5 main alarm/growth/bust cycles since World Conflict II. He additionally discusses quite a lot of smaller booms and busts in vitality analysis and growth and different fields. He says little in regards to the present cell/social/search growth.

For the reason that finish of the Chilly Conflict, the alarm/growth/bust cycles have develop into intertwined with immigration coverage generally and the controversial H1-B visa program specifically. A lot of the e-book discusses the position of trade and main analysis universities in each selling alarms over alleged shortages of scientists and engineers, alarms over the standard of Ok-12 (Kindergarten by means of twelfth grade) training in america, and heavy lobbying for will increase in or the entire elimination of immigration quotas for “high-skilled” immigrants on non permanent guest-worker visas, though as Teitelbaum factors out a number of occasions the H1-B program solely requires a bachelor’s diploma or equal.

Teitelbaum makes the vital level that the reported excessive dropout charge of faculty college students expressing an curiosity in a science or engineering diploma could replicate poor instructing on the school stage relatively than insufficient preparation because of poor Ok-12 training. Not surprisingly, the presidents and different representatives of analysis universities who comprise round half the membership of the “Blue Ribbon” committees such because the Nationwide Analysis Council’s “Rising Above the Gathering Storm” report committee (2005) may consciously or unconsciously want to focus consideration on Ok-12 training relatively than awful instructing by skilled researchers at analysis universities. Ok-12 lecturers and precise college students at any stage — Ok-12, school, or graduate faculty — are by no means represented on these committees.

One of many e-book’s strengths is detailed data on the lobbying organizations resembling Compete America concerned in STEM scarcity claims and their actions. The dialogue of lobbyist Jack Abramoff and his relationship with Microsoft is especially titillating and, as Teitelbaum factors out, nearly by no means talked about within the “mainstream media” regardless of simply obtainable data on quite a few websites and specialty publications.

These Lacking Reality Checkers

One of many minor themes of the e-book is the frequency of each omissions of vital information and factually inaccurate data in “mainstream” reporting on each STEM scarcity claims generally and in addition “high-skilled” immigration, significantly the controversial H1-B visa program. He notes, for instance, that the H1-B visa program is commonly described as requiring an unsuccessful seek for a talented American to fill a place earlier than an H1-B visa applicant or holder could be employed, which isn’t the case. One of many many sources of confusion on this matter is {that a} everlasting resident or “Inexperienced Card” visa does require such a search however the H1-B doesn’t.

The Bipartisan Consensus

Teitelbaum spends a considerable variety of pages rightly discussing how the seeming Left/Proper polarization of American politics doesn’t apply to STEM scarcity claims and associated points. He cites quite a lot of particular examples of “politics makes curious bedfellows” by which ostensibly left-wing and right-wing teams have joined forces on STEM scarcity and associated immigration points. Equally, opposition to STEM scarcity claims doesn’t comply with a transparent left/proper ideological axis with each some labor unions (suppose tanks related to the AFL-CIO such because the Financial Coverage Institute, for instance) and a few proper wing teams questioning or strongly attacking the claims and related insurance policies.

Certainly, there was little distinction between Al Gore and George W. Bush on these points within the 2000 presidential election. President Obama has largely continued the identical insurance policies on this space as George W. Bush, not too long ago touting govt motion on “high-skilled” immigration. President Obama was famously embarassed by questions in regards to the H1-B visa program and STEM scarcity claims by Jennifer Wedel, the spouse of a then unemployed semiconductor engineer, Darin Wedel, in a Google Plus chat session in 2012.

On this usually glorious dialogue, we encounter one of many weaknesses of Falling Behind?. Like most Individuals, Teitelbaum seems to take the Left/Proper axis in American politics at face worth or principally face worth. In reality, each the Republican and Democratic events and plenty of self-identified “Conservatives” and “Liberals” in each events have a protracted historical past of pursuing the identical or nearly the identical insurance policies in lots of areas, not simply STEM coverage, whereas usually attacking one another as extremist nutjob Communists or Fascists.

A notable latest instance is the financial institution bailout of 2008, supported by each the Democratic candidate Barack Obama and the Republican candidate John McCain and a big fraction of each Republican and Democratic Senators and Representatives. The revolving door between the US authorities and main monetary establishments is properly documented (see, for instance, this report by the Undertaking on Authorities Oversight) to incorporate many main Republicans and plenty of main Democrats with out a lot regard to both get together affiliation or purported ideology.

A Variety of Weaknesses

Total, Falling Behind? is a wonderful e-book. It does nonetheless have quite a lot of important weaknesses. It is a giant and complicated matter full of complicated and quickly shifting terminology and claims, making it troublesome even for a extremely skilled researcher resembling Teitelbaum to totally handle the problems. Teitelbaum doesn’t seem to have a lot expertise or direct information of the Silicon Valley. He appears extra accustomed to academia and federally funded analysis than with the non-public laptop trade and its curious hiring practices.

Purple Squirrels and Mutant Supermen

In academia and federally funded analysis, principally the identical factor at the moment, a Ph.D. is particular hands-on coaching for a particular self-discipline. It’s now properly documented that many federally funded Ph.D. packages produce way more Ph.D.’s than precise everlasting or long run positions within the self-discipline exist or will exist. In lots of STEM disciplines, resembling particle physics (my Ph.D. is in experimental particle physics), giant majorities of Ph.D.’s can’t discover work and should finally go away the self-discipline, usually changing into software program engineers of some kind. Ultimately means instantly after receiving a Ph.D. or after a primary “postdoc,” usually lasting 2-3 years. A minority of Ph.D.’s who fail to get a tenure observe place, usually an assistant professor, cling on in a collection of “postdoc” or “employees” positions, most leaving their subject of specialization. In most fields, a big majority of Ph.D.’s go away the sphere by the point they’re thirty-five. See the references part on the finish of this assessment for extra particulars.

There isn’t any credible case for a scarcity of individuals with particular versus basic expertise in most educational analysis fields. There’s additionally no credible case for a scarcity of individuals with expertise taught on the Ok-12 stage resembling primary arithmetic, algebra or easy “Good day World” stage “coding” in most educational analysis fields. Tutorial, federally funded analysis is the realm that Teitelbaum writes about most clearly and successfully.

Within the laptop trade (a big fraction of STEM diploma holders in any respect ranges find yourself working for the pc trade no matter their authentic plans), one usually hears claims of a scarcity of engineers or programmers “with particular expertise” or “certified” not directly. There’s super confusion over what this implies. In lots of circumstances the claims are rapidly adopted with complaints in regards to the poor high quality of Ok-12 training in america (and nearly by no means over the standard of faculty or college training). This appears to indicate a scarcity of engineers or programmers with Ok-12 STEM expertise resembling primary arithmetic, algebra, calculus, or introductory “Good day World” coding expertise resembling taught in AP Laptop Science courses.

It’s straightforward to know why laptop firms can’t rent candidates missing such primary expertise and can’t realistically present on-the-job coaching for brand new hires who once more lack such primary expertise resembling studying, writing, and arithmetic.

In reality, laptop firms are normally in search of candidates with at the least three years of paid, trade expertise in not one however normally dozens of particular, usually new “applied sciences”. Usually, this should be paid “trade” expertise. Faculty or faculty work doesn’t depend. Paid work for universities or authorities labs normally doesn’t depend. A typical job description is commonly one thing like:

Senior IOS Sport Developer at Cool SOMA (South of Market Neighborhood in San Francisco) Startup


o 3-5 years of IOS programming utilizing XCode and clang compiler (the GNU gcc compiler gained’t lower it)
o 3-5 years of Unity (sport growth system) on IOS 8 (IOS 7 gained’t do)
o 3-5 years of OpenGL (3D graphics API) expertise
o 3-5 years of Python expertise
o 3-5 years of Java expertise
o 3-5 years of Hadoop database expertise
o 3-5 years expertise with fashionable C++ (C++11 and at the least some C++14)
o 3-5 years of Agile growth
o 3-5 years of Git (model management system), Gerrit code assessment system, in a commerical collaborative staff surroundings
o at the least three apps within the iPhone app retailer
o B.S. diploma (MS most popular) from high laptop science program (e.g. Stanford, CMU)

Observe additionally that 3-5 years of expertise in a carefully associated “know-how” is usually not acceptable in its place. So, for instance, C++, Java, and Microsoft’s C# (“C-sharp”) are all very related programming languages with a lot of the identical English-derived key phrases, however 3-5 years of C# or C++ alone wouldn’t be a suitable substitute for the 3-5 years of Java expertise within the instance above.

The time period “know-how” is utilized in a peculiar means within the laptop trade, particularly with respect to hiring practices. If programming instruments had been cars, in lots of circumstances it might be like saying a Volvo and a Subaru are two totally different “applied sciences” although each use a gasoline-based inner combustion engine and a lot of the identical customary car parts.

Many of those lists of necessities are so intensive and choosy that it’s uncertain even a single “certified” engineer really exists, even amongst extremely skilled IOS sport builders (for instance). These elusive, usually non-existent candidates are often known as “purple squirrels” within the human sources subject. Firms regularly cite these “purple squirrel” necessities when explaining selections to show down seemingly extremely certified candidates.

But it is not uncommon for firms to show down or not even interview candidates within the uncommon circumstances that they really match all of the Purple Squirrel necessities. This raises many questions on how actual these job necessities are and in addition what the precise hiring standards could also be. When challenged about this, employers usually begin speaking about “cultural match.”

Laptop firms additionally usually declare to be in search of “the perfect” engineers or programmers: “A gamers” and even “A+ gamers”, “superprogrammers”, “10X” and even “100X” programmers. It isn’t clear what this in follow refers to. It’s usually vaguely outlined. Laptop firms usually appear to be saying {that a} small minority of programmers have some particular “superprogrammer” gene that inherently makes them a lot better than the everyday or median engineer or programmer with a level from Stanford, MIT, or another high college and twin 800 scores on the SAT examination. 🙂

These mysterious superbeings are elusive and infrequently recognized by title. Fabrice Bellard and John Carmack are generally cited as particular examples.

In some respects, the super-programmers and super-engineers bear a resemblance to Marvel Comics outcast mutant supermen the X-Males, full with actual world “superpowers,” a time period that seems in’s well-known inspirational “What Most Faculties Don’t Train” video on coding for instance. The X-Males and different comedian e-book super-heroes are well-liked with many within the laptop trade, though basing hiring practices on comedian books appears relatively questionable.

Many Silicon Valley employers declare to be satisfied that whereas these mutant supermen and ladies (they appear to be principally males for some motive, probably the “superprogrammer” gene is linked to the Y chromosome) are remarkably arduous to search out in america there are greater than 65,000 (the present H1-B visa cap) produced yearly in India and China clamoring to maneuver to america on a dangerous non permanent guest-worker visa relatively than use their mutant superpowers to discovered their very own Google in Bangalore or Shenzen. 🙂

America has a particular, “genius” visa, the “O-1 Visa: People with Extraordinary Capability or Achievement,” which is never talked about in debates on “high-skilled” immigration and, not like the H1-B visa, seems to require precise proof that the visa applicant is a mutant superman (or lady).

It must be famous additionally that the Purple Squirrels and Mutant Supermen are sometimes conflated. Jean Gray should not solely have world-destroying psychokinetic powers but additionally at the least three years of paid skilled expertise incinerating alien planets for a cool Silicon Valley firm, ideally Google. Working for a non-profit instructional establishment resembling Professor Xavier’s College for Gifted Kids simply gained’t lower it. 🙂

Teitelbaum doesn’t get the Silicon Valley’s paradoxical hiring practices explicitly improper in Falling Behind? however a full evaluation of the STEM scarcity claims emanating from the pc trade and the Silicon Valley requires an in depth investigation and clarification of the Purple Squirrel job necessities and the Mutant Superman principle of science and engineering which is missing.

An Unbiased Company to Consider STEM Scarcity Claims?

Falling Behind? ends with a chapter “Making Issues Work Higher” which presents quite a lot of prompt public coverage adjustments to enhance the system, scale back or get rid of the growth/bust cycle, and make STEM professions extra interesting to gifted younger (or outdated) individuals. Teitelbaum offers little recommendation for STEM college students or staff on how to deal with the present system nor arguments addressed to employers on how and why to alter their present hiring practices. He’s primarily involved with authorities coverage. Considered one of Teitelbaum’s predominant options is to ascertain an impartial fee or company, maybe much like the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) in the UK, to judge the STEM labor market and present and future STEM scarcity claims particularly.

This concept will most likely fail even when adopted. Teitelbaum paperwork a number of circumstances of presidency companies, presumably or clearly in response to employer pressures and lobbying, producing reviews and analyses of extremely questionable high quality and accuracy asserting both a present scarcity of STEM staff or predicting a scarcity or shortfall sooner or later that by no means occurred (as an alternative a glut, a bust, really occurred). An company or fee resembling Teitelbaum suggests would nearly definitely develop into the goal of sustained lobbying and strain to provide the identical type of flawed analyses which have repeatedly occurred since World Conflict II.

Are the Booms and Busts Unhealthy for America or the World?

The best weak spot of the e-book is that Teitelbaum fails to make a powerful or convincing case that the alarm/growth/bust cycle and associated insurance policies is unhealthy for america, the World, or companies. That it’s unhealthy for a lot of STEM staff, scientists and engineers is apparent. That it discourages many gifted individuals from pursuing STEM careers can also be apparent. Many individuals merely don’t need to take such dangers or can’t take such dangers. Nonetheless, Teitelbaum argues in a number of locations that the American analysis and growth system has produced many constructive outcomes and in lots of respects labored properly since World Conflict II. For higher or worse, the alarm/growth/bust system that he critiques has produced: nuclear weapons and energy vegetation, thermonuclear weapons, ICBM’s, the profitable touchdown on the Moon, lasers, iPhones, profitable coronary heart transplants, Lithium Polymer super-batteries, fracking, and plenty of different technological marvels.

Now, I personally consider that the alarm/growth/bust system that Teitelbaum critiques has been unhealthy for america, the human race as an entire, and plenty of companies. As a STEM employee, I’m clearly biased.

My private argument is that, in actual fact, there was a marked slowdown in scientific and technological progress in lots of fields since World Conflict II and particularly since about 1970, with some areas of computer systems and electronics an apparent exception. That is partly as a result of alarm/growth/bust system, but additionally as a result of marked tendency of presidency funded analysis packages to lock onto a single principle or paradigm, resembling superstrings for a few years in theoretical particle physics, to the exclusion of different competing theories or paradigms and with out good motive or supporting proof. The glut of STEM Ph.D.’s in educational analysis creates an surroundings by which questioning or difficult the reigning paradigm, the “one true means,” is normally profession suicide. It is a main contributing issue to the lock-in on a single paradigm or principle.

Since World Conflict II non-public companies have come to rely closely on federally funded analysis packages for the essential analysis underlying and enabling most of their merchandise, items and companies. Therefore the issues of the federally funded analysis and growth system have propagated by means of your entire fashionable economic system.

We see this slowdown most noticeably in energy and propulsion know-how regardless of some advances resembling higher batteries and maybe hydraulic fracturing, “fracking,” in oil and pure fuel drilling. This slowdown in progress in energy and propulsion know-how has contributed closely to the intense financial issues skilled on a worldwide scale during the last decade and in addition to violent and counterproductive conflicts — Iraq, Afghanistan, the International Conflict on Terror, mysterious “terrorist” incidents — in recent times.

In energy and propulsion, there are a number of examples of New Manhattan Tasks resembling tokamaks for nuclear fusion (culminating in ITER), inertial confinement fusion (culminating within the Nationwide Ignition Facility), and gigantic accelerator tasks such because the Tremendous Conducting Tremendous Collider (SSC) and the Massive Hadron Collider (LHC) which have crowded out different prospects whereas failing to provide sensible outcomes regardless of heavy funding — far exceeding pre-World Conflict II R&D budgets.

Crude Oil Prices Since 1861

Inflation Adjusted Crude Oil Costs Since 1861 (Pink Line) — Wikipedia

However perception just isn’t proof, nor are basic, hand-waving arguments. In Falling Behind?, Teitelbaum fails to point out that the present system is unhealthy for america or the world. I feel he clearly believes this and I agree with him if he does. A extra particular argument and detailed knowledge is required to make the case to a skeptical viewers with a powerful short-term curiosity within the present system.


Falling Behind? is a wonderful e-book and properly value studying if you are interested in STEM coverage or STEM scarcity claims, “high-skilled” immigration, or science and engineering coverage and economics generally. Many STEM staff and employers would profit from studying the e-book — in addition to coverage makers.

For STEM staff, the one clear takeaway is to anticipate and plan for the booms and busts. As Joseph suggested the Pharaoh, save through the seven fats years to outlive the seven lean years. Don’t purchase the “new economic system/this time is totally different” hype that always accompanies the booms.

For STEM employers, Teitelbaum recounts how main excessive tech firms invested thousands and thousands of {dollars} and plenty of hours of govt time on lobbying for a rise within the H1-B visa cap through the Web Bubble solely to lastly get their improve simply because the bubble collapsed, absolutely a waste of money and time on reflection. Whereas it could take years to alter insurance policies in Washington or fail outright, excessive tech employers have direct and instant management over their very own hiring practices, working circumstances and salaries. On this enviornment, employers have many instant choices together with (however not restricted to):

o lowering or eliminating the lengthy lists of required specialised expertise in Purple Squirrel job descriptions both by utilizing “Most well-liked” as an alternative of “Required” or just requiring solely a few of the record of desired expertise as an alternative of all.

o establishing apprenticeship or coaching packages to allow profitable on-boarding of workers with out the precise “proper expertise”

o switching to blind coding and technical checks scored by computer systems or by human evaluators who know nothing in regards to the candidate aside from the solutions — as is now the case with standardized checks such because the SAT or Superior Placement (AP) checks to get rid of bias. One might argue that federal anti-discrimination statutes and customary legislation really require this anyway 🙂

o merely taking a tough have a look at many frequent beliefs and practices of excessive tech employers that look like primarily based on verbal folklore and frequent repetition relatively than arduous proof.

We are able to hope that Michael Teitelbaum will comply with up Falling Behind? with one other e-book addressing these and different points that weren’t coated in his present e-book.

© 2015 John F. McGowan

In regards to the Writer

John F. McGowan, Ph.D. solves issues utilizing arithmetic and mathematical software program, together with growing video compression and speech recognition applied sciences. He has intensive expertise growing software program in C, C++, Visible Primary, Mathematica, MATLAB, and plenty of different programming languages. He’s most likely finest recognized for his AVI Overview, an Web FAQ (Regularly Requested Questions) on the Microsoft AVI (Audio Video Interleave) file format. He has labored as a contractor at NASA Ames Analysis Heart concerned within the analysis and growth of picture and video processing algorithms and know-how. He has printed articles on the origin and evolution of life, the exploration of Mars (anticipating the invention of methane on Mars), and low-cost entry to area. He has a Ph.D. in physics from the College of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a B.S. in physics from the California Institute of Know-how (Caltech). He could be reached at [email protected].

References and Urged Studying

“U.S. Pushes for extra scientists, however the jobs aren’t there,” by Brian Vastag, Washington Put up, July 7, 2012

“A Profession in Science Will Value You Your Firstborn,” by John Skylar, Weblog Put up, Jan 7, 2015

“The Scientific Century:securing our future prosperity” by the Royal Society (UK), March 2010, Determine 1.6: careers in and out of doors science, web page 14


“Survivor: theoretical physics,” by Steve Hsu, Weblog Put up, September 24, 2008

Particle Concept Job Market
Posted on January 29, 2010
Weblog Put up, Not Even Mistaken, by Peter Woit

“What Scientist Scarcity? The Johnny-can’t-do-science fantasy damages US analysis” by Beryl Lieff Benderly, Columbia Journalism Assessment, January 17, 2012

Does the U.S. Produce Too Many Scientists?
American science training lags behind that of many different nations, proper? So why does it produce so many gifted younger researchers who can’t discover a job of their chosen subject of research?
By Beryl Lieff Benderly
Scientific American, February 22, 2010

“What Scientist Scarcity?” by Daniel S. Greenberg, Washington Put up, Wednesday, Might 19, 2004; Web page A23

Mathematicians and the Market
Geoff Davis, Arithmetic Division, Dartmouth Faculty
Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 44, No. 10, pp. 1307-1315, 1997.

The disposable educational
Why doing a PhD is commonly a waste of time
The Economist
Dec sixteenth 2010

What to do about overproduction of PhDs?
Aug 19 2010, Weblog Put up, Revealed by galacticinteractions beneath Academia, Rant, in regards to the writer’s expertise with the Physics Bust of the Early 1990’s

Cease Admitting Ph.D. College students
Inside Larger Ed
August 18, 2010
Monica J. Harris

The Overproduction of PhDs Was Acknowledged Over a Decade In the past
Posted on February 1, 2013, Mike The Mad Biologist Weblog

Scientist scarcity? Possibly not
By Greg Toppo and Dan Vergano, USA TODAY
Up to date 7/9/2009 2:29 AM

How and Why Authorities, Universities, and Business Create Home Labor Shortages of Scientists and Excessive-Tech Employees
By Eric Weinstein (1998)
(Working Draft)
Nationwide Bureau of Financial Analysis

Is There a Scarcity of Scientists and Engineers? How Would We Know?
by William Butz, Gabrielle Bloom, Mihal Gross, Ok. Kelly, Aaron Kofner, Helga Rippen
RAND Company 2003

Toil, Bother, and the Chilly Conflict Bubble: Physics and the Academy since World Conflict II
Speaker(s): David Kaiser
Presentation at Perimeter Institute
Date: 10/09/2008 – 2:00 pm

Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Analysis (Nationwide Analysis Council 2005)